ما مَرَرْتُ ليلةَ أُسْرِىَ بى بملإٍ إلا قالُوا: يا محمدُ؛ مُرْ أُمَّتَكَ بِالحِجَامَةِ
نِعْمَ العبدُ الحَجَّامُ يَذْهَبُ بالدَّمِ، وَيُخِفُّ الصُّلْبَ، ويَجْلُو البَصَرَ
نزل جبريلُ على النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم بحجامة الأخْدَعَيْنِ والكَاهِلِ
مَنْ أراد الحِجَامة فَلْيَتَحَرَّ سَبْعَةَ عَشَرَ، أو تِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ، أو إحْدَى وعِشرِينَ، لا يَتَبَيَّغ بأحَدِكُم الدَّمُ، فيقتلَه
Prophet’s Guidance using Honey, Hijamah (Cupping) and Cauterizing as remedies
فى “صحيحِ البخارى”: عن سعيد بن جُبيرٍ، عن ابن عباس، عن النَّبِىِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال: “الشِّفَاءُ فى ثلاثٍ: شُرْبَةِ عسلٍ، وشَرْطةِ مِحْجَمٍ، وكَيَّةِ نارٍ، وأنا أنْهى أُمَّتى عن الْكَىِّ”.
Bukhari narrated that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said:
“There is cure in three substances. A drink of honey, incision with a knife used for Hijamah (cupping) and cauterizing by fire. And I forbid my Nation from cauterizing by fire”.
Abu Abdullab Al-Maziri said, “Plethoric (excessive substances) conditions are either sanguineous (bloody), bilious (phlegm), or melancholic, and curing sanguineous plethora entails extracting the blood. If plethora was from the other three types, its cure is in softening the stool as warranted for each disease. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ has indicated that honey is used as a laxative and that cupping is used to extract [septic] blood. Some people said that when the slash by a cupping knife does not work, the last resort is branding by fire (cauterizing).
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ mentioned branding by fire as a last resort when the body has a strong resistance against medicine, rendering it ineffective. Our beloved Prophet then said: “I forbid my Ummah (Muslim Nation) from branding by fire (cauterizing)”, and in another narration, “I do not like to be branded by fire”. Cauterizing by fire should be the last resort and only used when warranted. The fire should not be the first choice because of the intense pain it causes, which can be more severe than the pain with which a patient is already suffering.
Some doctors said that diseases related to the temperament are either material or non-material. The material types are either cold, hot, wet or dry or a combination of these conditions. The four conditions, hotness and coldness are effected; while the other two, are usually affected When one of the two effective temperaments is stronger than the other, one of the affected temperaments usually accompanies it. Every type of temperament in the body has two parts, effective and affected.
Temperamental ailments are usually caused by whichever effective condition is stronger, hotness or coldness. Our beloved Prophet’s statement directs us to the origin of ailments, hotness and coldness.
If the ailment was hot, the cure entails extracting the blood by cupping or puncturing the veins, both of which help extract the septic matter, cooling the temperament.
We treat it with heat, if the ailment is cold, such as by taking honey.
Honey helps in the case if we need to extract the cold material that has caused the ailment, because it leads the various substances to maturity along with its other qualities of cleansing, softening, soothing and purging the affected organs. In this case, the septic material will be gently extracted while saving the body from the abuse of using strong laxatives.
Physical ailments are either acute, not needing cauterization, because they would soon be neutralized, or chronic ailments, for which cauterizing the proper organ is the best remedy after extracting the septic substances. Chronic diseases usually result from thick, cold septic substances residing in the affected organ, ailing it, spoiling its constitution and, thereby, inflaming the parts of the body that are directly connected to the affected organ. Therefore, cauterizing should be used to dissipate and extract the septic substances in the affected organ with fire.
The Hadith explains treatments for all type of physical ailments, just as we learned the treatment method for all simple ailments (accompanied by fever) from the Hadith,
“إنَّ شدةَ الحُمَّى مِن فَيْحِ جَهَنَّمَ، فأبرِدُوهَا بالماء”
“The heat of the fever is a breath of the Hell Fire; cool it with water”.
Ahadeeth on Hijamah
فى “سنن ابن ماجه” من حديث جُبَارَةَ بن المُغَلِّس وهو ضعيفٌ عن كثير بن سَليم، قال: سَمعتُ أَنَسَ بن مالكٍ يقولُ: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “ما مَرَرْتُ ليلةَ أُسْرِىَ بى بملإٍ إلا قالُوا: يا محمدُ؛ مُرْ أُمَّتَكَ بِالحِجَامَةِ”.
As for Hijamah, lbn Majah narrated in his Sunan that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said: “During the night of lsraa (the overnight journey from Makkah to Jerusalem and then to the heavens), every company (of angels) that I passed by would say, “O Muhammad! Order your Ummah (nation) to use Hijamah (wet cupping)”.
وفى “الصحيحين” من حديث طَاووس، عن ابن عباس، أنَّ النبىَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم “احتجَمَ وأعْطى الحَجَّامَ أجْرَه”
In addition, in the Sahihain, it is narrated that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ once had his blood cupped (medically) and paid the person who applied the Hijamah (cupping).
Furthermore, in the Sahihain it is narrated:
وفى “الصحيحين” أيضاً، عن حُمَيدٍ الطويل، عن أنس، أنَّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حجمَهُ أبُو طَيْبَةَ، فأمَرَ لهُ بصَاعينِ مِن طعامٍ، وكلَّمَ مواليهُ، فخفَّفُوا عنهُ مِن ضريبتِهِ، وقال: “خَيْرُ مَا تَدَاويْتمْ بِهِ الْحِجَامَةَ”.
Abu Taybah cupped Allah’s Messenger, who then ordered that Abu Taybah be paid one Sa’a (a measure pertaining to food) of dates and ordered his masters to reduce his tax (as he was a slave and had to pay a tax to them). Prophet Muhammad ﷺ then said:
“Hijamah (Cupping) is among your best remedies”.
وفى “جامع الترمذىّ” عن عبَّاد بن منصور، قال: سمِعتُ عِكْرمَةَ يقولُ: “كانَ لابن عباسٍ غِلمةٌ ثلاثةٌ حَجَّامُون، فكانَ اثنَانِ يُغلانِ عليه، وَعَلَى أهلِهِ، وواحدٌ لحجمِهِ، وحجمِ أهلِهِ. قال: وقال ابنُ عباسٍ: قال نبىُّ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “نِعْمَ العبدُ الحَجَّامُ يَذْهَبُ بالدَّمِ، وَيُخِفُّ الصُّلْبَ، ويَجْلُو البَصَرَ”.
In Tirmizi, it is narrated by Abbaad Bin Mansoor that he said: I heard Ikramah saying that Abdullah Ibn Abbas ؓ had three slaves who were Hajjaam (a person who performs cupping), two of them used to work for him & his family (probably at his garden & to carry the grains & load to his house) & one of those slaves performed cupping. Abdullah Ibn Abbas ؓ reported that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said : “The best of slaves is HAJJAAM (one who performs Hijamah ~ wet cupping), Hijamah takes out the blood, & removes the pain from the back & enhances the vision”.
وقالَ: “إنَّ خيرَ مَا تحْتَجِمُونَ فيهِ يَوْمَ سَبْعَ عَشْرَةَ، ويَوْمَ تِسْعَ عَشْرَةَ، وَيَوْمَ إحْدَى وَعِشرينَ”، وقال: “إنَّ خَيْرَ ما تَدَاويْتُمْ بِهِ السَّعُوطُ واللَّدُودُ والحِجَامَةُ والمَشِىُّ
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said “The best dates for Hijamah are 17th, 19th & 21st of the lunar month” and he also said “The best among your treatments is Sa’oot (taking medicine through the nose), Ladood (taking medicine by mouth), Hijamah (Wet Cupping) & Mashee (cleaning the stomach).
The benefits of cupping include cleansing the exterior parts of the body more than puncturing the veins, or puncturing the veins, is better when used to extract blood from the internal parts of the body. Cupping entails removing blood from the various parts of the skin.
Using either Hijamah (cupping) or Fasd (puncturing the veins) depends on the time of year, the area, the age and state of the ailing person. For instance, cupping is more beneficial than puncturing the veins in warm areas, warm weather and hot tempered people, whose blood is near to maturity (concerning the septic substances in the blood). In this case, the septic, maturing blood will collect near the skin. Cupping extracts the septic blood more efficiently than puncturing the veins. This is why using cupping for children and those who cannot bear puncturing the veins is better and more useful.
Doctors affirm that Hijamah (cupping) is better used in warm areas than puncturing the veins and that cupping is preferred in the middle of the month or soon after, especially in the last quarter of the month. In the beginning of the month, the blood will have already become irritated (thus carrying septic materials that need to be cupped). In the end of the month, the blood will be idle, unlike the case in the middle and last quarter of the month when the blood is agitated and sufficiently produced.
The author of Al-Qanoon said; Cupping is not preferred in the beginning of the month, because the body’s various conditions will not be agitated then, nor is it preferred in the end of the month, because by then the conditions would have decreased. Cupping is preferred in the middle of the month when the substances (of the constitution or condition) accumulate and become agitated. It was reported that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said:
“خَيْرُ ما تداويتم به الحِجَامَة والفَصْدُ
“Cupping and puncturing the veins are your best remedies”.
This Hadith is directed at the people of Hijaaz and warm areas in general, for their blood is delicate and circulates closer to the surface of the skin, while the pores on their skin are wide and their strength is weakened (i.e., during summer). Puncturing the veins is harmful for them. Puncturing of each of the veins usually has a special benefit. For instance, puncturing of the basilica vein (the large vein running on the inner side of the upper arm) is useful against the heat of the liver and spleen and various blood-related tumors in these two organs.
It is in addition useful for tumors of the lungs (emphysema), arterial pulsation, pleurisy and all blood-related diseases of veins in the lower part of the knee to the hip. Furthermore, puncturing of the median vein helps against the various swellings that appear throughout the entire body, especially when the swelling is blood-related, and contains spoiled blood in general. In addition, puncturing of the arm’s vein helps against the ailments in the head and neck that result from excessive amounts of blood or from septic blood. Puncturing of the jugular vein helps against the ailments of the spleen, asthma, thoracic cavity and forehead pain.
Cupping the upper section of the back helps against the aches of the shoulder and the throat. Further, cupping the two posterior jugular veins helps against the ailments of the head, face, teeth, ears, eyes, nose and throat, if these ailments were caused by excessive presence of blood, soiled blood or both.
Anas ؓ said:
قال أنس رضى الله تعالى عنه: “كان رسولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يحتجمُ فى الأخْدَعَيْن والكَاهِلِ”.
“The Messenger of Allah used to apply Hijamah (wet cupping) on Akhda’ain (the two posterior jugular veins) and KAHIL (the upper part of the back). [Abu Dawood, Al-Tirmizi, Ibn Majah, Abmad and Al Hakim].
وفى “الصحيحين” عنه: “كان رسولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يحتجم ثلاثاً: واحدةً على كاهله، واثْنتين على الأخْدَعَيْن
“The Messenger of Allah used to apply Hijamah (wet cupping) on three areas, his upper back area and the two posterior jugular veins”. [Bukhari and Muslim].
وفى “الصحيح” عنه: “أنه احتجم وهو محرمٌ فى رأسه لِصداع كان به”.
It is narrated in the Sahih that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ used Hijamah (wet cupping) on his head when he was in a state of lhram due to a headache.
وفى “سنن أبى داود” من حديث جابر: “أنَّ النبىَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم احتجم فى وَركه من وثءٍ كان به”.
In addition, Abu Dawood narrated that Jabir ؓ said that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ used Hijamah (wet cupping) on his hip because of a debilitation he suffered from.
وفى “سنن ابن ماجه” عن علىّ: “نزل جبريلُ على النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم بحجامة الأخْدَعَيْنِ والكَاهِلِ”.
Narrated by Ibn Majah, on the authority of Ali ؓ that angel JIBREEL advised Prophet Muhammad ﷺ for Hijamah at Akhda’ain (posterior jugulars) and KAHIL (upper back ~ between the shoulders).
Hijamah on the Nape Cavity
Some doctors approved this type of cupping, saying that it helps against exophthalmoses, the abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs, the heaviness in the eyebrows and the eyelids and against eyelid mange. A Hadith states:
وفى حديث آخر: “عليكم بالحِجَامَة فى جَوْزَةِ القَمْحْدُوَةِ، فإنها شفاءٌ من اثْنَيْنِ وسَبْعينَ داءً”.
“Use Hijamah (wet cupping) on the nape cavity, for it cures seventy two kinds of ailments”.
Further, it was narrated that when Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal needed cupping on the nape cavity, he did it on the two sides of the nape but not on the cavity itself.
The author of Al-Qanun disliked cupping the cavity of the nape saying that it causes forgetfulness just as our Prophet Muhammad has stated. This is because the back of the brain is the location of the memory power and cupping it affects that power.
Other people did not approve of his opinion though, saying that the Hadith that he referred to is not authentic. They said that even if the Hadith is authentic; cupping at the nape weakens the brain if cupping occurs without a necessity that warrants it. When warranted, cupping the nape cavity is medically and religiously useful against the pressure of the blood on the cavity. Authentic narrations have stated that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ used cupping in many areas on the back of his neck and in other areas of his body as much as was needed.
Hijamah under the chin helps against toothache, face ailments and throat infections when used at the proper time; it cleanses and purifies the head and the jaws. Further, cupping on top of the foot substitutes for the puncturing of the Saphena, which is a vein on the heel. This kind of cupping helps against the ulcers that occur on the thighs and legs, the interruption of monthly periods and skin irritation on the testicles.
Cupping on the lower part of the chest helps against spots, sores and mange on the thigh. It also helps against gout, hemorrhoids, elephantiasis and itchiness on the back.
When cupping is preferred ?
روى الترمذى فى “جامعه” من حديث ابن عباس يرفعه: “إنَّ خَيْرَ ما تَحتَجِمُون فيه يَوْمُ سابعَ عشَرَةَ، أو تاسِعَ عشرةَ، ويومُ إحْدَى وعِشْرِينَ”.
Anas ؓ related from Prophet Muhammad ﷺ that he said:
“The Messenger of Allah used to have cupping on the jugular veins and the upper part of the back on the seventeenth, nineteenth or twenty-first (day of the month)”. (Al Tirmizi)
Anas Radi Allaho related from Prophet Muhammad ﷺ that he said:
وفى “سنن ابن ماجه” عن أنس مرفوعاً: “مَنْ أراد الحِجَامة فَلْيَتَحَرَّ سَبْعَةَ عَشَرَ، أو تِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ، أو إحْدَى وعِشرِينَ، لا يَتَبَيَّغ بأحَدِكُم الدَّمُ، فيقتلَه”.
“Those who intend to have cupping; let them do that on the seventeenth, nineteenth or twenty first (of the month); to prevent the septic blood from causing death to one of you”. (lbn Majah)
In addition, Abu Dawood narrated that Abu Hurayrah ؓ related from Prophet Muhammad ﷺ that he said:
وفى “سنن أبى داود” مِن حديث أبى هريرة مرفوعاً: “مَن احْتَجَمَ لِسَبْع عَشْرَةَ، أو تِسْعَ عَشْرَة، أو إحْدَى وعِشْرِينَ، كانَتْ شِفاءً من كلِّ داءٍ”،
“Those who have cupping on the seventeenth, nineteenth or twenty first will be cured from every disease”. (Every disease mentioned in the Hadith means the blood-related diseases).
Both of the last two Ahadeeth are weak.
These Ahadeeth conform to the position taken by doctors that cupping is preferred in the latter half of the month and (he third quarter, rather than the beginning or the end of the month. However; if Hijamah is necessary, it will be useful during any part of the month including the beginning and the end. It was reported that Imam Ahmad lbn Hanbal used to practice Hijamah (cupping) during any part of the month when the spoiled blood became agitated.
The author of Al-Qanoon said, “Hijamah / Wet Cupping is preferred during the day, the second or the third hour and after one takes a bath, when warranted, one should take a bath then rest for an hour or so and then use cupping”. Cupping is not preferred when the stomach is full, for it might cause various ailments, especially after taking a heavy meal.
It was said that cupping on an empty stomach is a cure, and when ones stomach is full is a disease, and when it is done on the seventeenth of the month, it becomes a remedy. Choosing the best time for cupping preserves good health and helps prevent harm from attacking the body. However, when the illness intensifies, cupping becomes warranted and needed whatever the circumstances, for our beloved Prophet said:
“لا يَتَبَيَّغْ بأحدِكم الدَّمُ فيقتلَهُ”،
“Be aware, so that the septic blood does not cause death to one of you”.
We stated before that Imam Ahmad used to take Hijamah during any time of the month if cupping was medically warranted.
As for the best days of the week to have cupping, Al-Khalil said that Imam Ahmad was asked about the days when cupping is not preferred, and he said, “Wednesday and Saturday”. In addition, Al-Khalil narrated that Imam Ahmad was once asked about the days when cupping is disliked and Imam Ahmad answered, “Saturday and Wednesday”, and in addition Friday was also reported
However, all the Ahadeeth that state the time when the cupping is either preferred or disliked are weak, according to the scholars of Hadith.
The previous Ahadeeth we mentioned state that seeking the cure by Hijamah instead of Fasd is preferred. In addition, cupping is done in the part of the body that needs it the most. Those who have Ihram (during Hajj or Umrah) are allowed to use cupping, even if it involves cutting some hair and they do not have to pay a penalty. Further, it is allowed for those who are fasting to use cupping as Bokhari narrated that the Messenger of Allah took Hijamah while he was fasting.
There are several Ahadeeth that state that Hijamah breaks the Fast. The only Hadith that appears to contradict this ruling is the Hadith that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ had cupping while fasting. In this case, for the Hadith to mean that cupping does not break the Fast, it should satisfy one of the following four conditions:
First, Fasting should have been obligated by the time the incident in the Hadith [narrated by Al-Khalil above] occurred. Second, it should be proven that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was not traveling [when he had cupping]. Third, that our beloved Prophet was not suffering from an illness that warranted cupping. Fourth; that this Hadith came after our beloved Prophet said,
“أفطَرَ الحاجِمُ والمحجُومُ”.
“Those having cupping and those who do it have both broken their fast”.
If these four conditions are satisfied, only then we can say that cupping does not break the fast. Relying on the Hadith that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ took Hijamah when he was fasting. Otherwise, the Fast mentioned in the Hadith might have been a voluntary fast. That too is allowed to break when cupping is warranted.
It could have occurred during Ramadan but while the Prophet was traveling, or the Hadith might be talking about a compulsory Fast during Ramadan but that it was necessary to have cupping due to an illness, or, cupping could dove been done during Ramadan and without a necessity that warrants it, but before our beloved Prophet issued his statement that cupping breaks the Fast of those involved in it. There is no proof that any of the four conditions we mentioned above wore satisfied, so how about all four of them?
In addition, the Hadith proves that one is allowed to hire a doctor for a certain purpose and then pay him for his services without a service contract.
The Hadith (that our beloved Prophet paid the person who performed cupping for him) indicates that some people are allowed to make Hijamah (wet cupping) their profession. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ gave the man who performed cupping some money and that person spent that money on his necessities.
Finally, the Hadith proves that one is allowed to collect reasonable taxes from his slave and that the slave is allowed to use whatever is left after paying the tax. Otherwise, if the master is going to take all the money anyway, it will not be called a tax any more.